The World Bank has disclosed that low-skilled Nigerians who moved to the United States of America increased their earnings by 1,500 per cent.
This was contained in the World Development Report 2023 Migrants, Refugees, and Societies released on Tuesday on the World Bank’s website.
The report noted that the potential gains from migration are highest.
The report suggests that although the absolute gains are larger for high-skilled workers than for low-skilled workers, low-skilled workers experience a multifold increase in their income as well. The report further notes that the potential gains are highest for people who move from low- to high-income countries.
The labor demand at the destination also shapes outcomes, and gains depend on migrants’ skills, gender, age, and language ability.
Nigeria is a major origin and destination for migrants, and the report notes that Nigeria is home to almost 1.3 million immigrants and is the origin of 1.7 million emigrants.
The report also reveals that in Nigeria, households that receive remittances invest more in agrochemicals and planting materials, and their farms have larger yields.
However, it was noted that income gains are sometimes partly offset by the financial costs of moving, especially for the low-skilled.
For low-skilled migration, these costs tend to be borne by the workers, thereby contravening the principles of fair recruitment. These costs tend to increase with the duration of contracts, and they limit the ability of many low-skilled workers to benefit from migration opportunities.
The report further notes that Nigeria and nine other countries account for more than two-thirds of the 59.1 million internally displaced persons, with about 3.2 million IDPs in Nigeria. The report highlights the need for policies that address displacement and forced migration, which can lead to significant social, economic, and political costs.
Despite the challenges faced by low-skilled migrants, the report underscores the potential gains from migration for individuals and societies. The report urges policymakers to address the root causes of displacement and forced migration and to create opportunities for safe, orderly, and regular migration.